Health warnings research

Packaging is an important form of promotion for tobacco products. Governments are also learning how to use packaging to communicate the consequences of tobacco use directly to consumers.  More than 60 countries require large pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages. Our work evaluated the first impact of the first pictorial health warnings-implemented by Canada in 2001-and has played an important role in guiding the development and implementation of health warnings in other countries. I served as an Expert Advisor in the development of the elaborated guidelines for Article 11 for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and our work has been cited in more than a dozen consultations and regulatory impact statements in countries around the world.

Book chapters & reports

Recommendations for designing and evaluating warnings

Empirical studies

Neural biomarkers for assessing the effects of different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging.
Newman-Norlund R, Thrasher J, Frridrikson J, Brixius W, Froeliger B, Hammond D, Cummings KM.
BMJ Open; In Press.

Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: A longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Australia, Canada and Mexico.
Thrasher JF, Osman A, Moodie C, Hammond D, Bansal-Travers M, Cummings MK, Borland R, Yong HH, Hardin J.
Tobacco Control; In Press.

The impact of graphic cigarette warning label message framing and plain packaging among adult smokers: Evidence to inform tobacco regulation. 
Mays D, Niaura RS, Evas D, Hammond D, Luta G, Tercyak KP.
Tobacco Control 2014; In Press.

Mediational pathways of the impact of cigarette warning labels on quit attempts in four countries: An application of the ITC Conceptual Model.
Yong HH, Borland R, Thrasher J, Thompson M, Nagelhout G, Fong GT, Hammond D, Cummings KM.
Health Psychology 2014; June 30 [epub ahead of print].

Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks – a cross-country comparison.
Swayampakala K, Hardin J, Hammond D, Yong HH, Borland R, Krugman D, Brown A, Thrasher J.
Health Education Research 2014; May 21. pii: cyu022 [Epub ahead of print].

Flavored tobacco use among Canadian students in Grades 9 – 12: Prevalence and patterns from the 2010-11 Youth Smoking Survey.
Minaker L, Ahmed R, Manske S, Hammond D.
Preventing Chronic Disease 2014; 11: E102.

Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared to the United Kingdom and Canada.
Li L, Borland R, Yong HH, Cummings KM, Thrasher JF, Hitchman S, Fong GT, Hammond D, Bansal-Travers M.
Health Education Research 2014; Dec 8 [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1093/her/cyu074

The use of cigarette package inserts to supplement pictorial health warnings: An evaluation of the Canadian policy.
Thrasher JF, Osman A, Abad EN, Hammond D, Bansal-Travers M, Cummings KM, Hardin JW, Moodie C.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014; Dec 5. pii: ntu246. [Epub ahead of print]

The impact of the 2009 enhancement of cigarette health warning labels in Uruguay: Longitudinal findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey. 
Gravely S, Fong GT, McNally M, Driezen P, Thrasher JF, Thompson ME, Boado M, Bianco E, Borland R, Hammond D.
Tobacco Control Dec 15. pii: tobaccocontrol-2014-051742. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051742. [Epub ahead of print]

Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: findings from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand Surveys.
Fathelrahman AI, Li L, Borland R, Yong HH, Omar M, Awang R, Sirirassamee B, Fong GT, Hammond D.
BMC Public Health 2014; 11(1): 20.

Cigarette packet warning labels can prevent relapse: Findings from the ITC 4-Country Policy Evaluation Cohort Survey.
Partos TR, Borland R, Yong HH, Thrasher JF, Hammond D.
Tobacco Control 2013; 22 (e1): e43-50.

The efficacy of cigarette warning labels on health beliefs in the United States and Mexico.
Mutti S, Hammond D, Reid JL, Thrasher JF.
Journal of Health Communication 2013; 18(10); 1180-92.

Tobacco packaging and mass-media campaigns: Research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Hammond D, Wakefield M, Durkin S, Brennan E.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2013; 15(4): 817-37.

Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs in the United States: An experimental evaluation of the proposed FDA warnings.
Hammond D, Reid JL, Driezen P, Boudreau C.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2013; 15(1): 93-102.

Changes in effectiveness of cigarette health warning over time: Findings from the ITC Canada and US surveys, 2002-2011.
Hitchman S, Driezen P, Logel C, Hammond D, Fong GT.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2013; doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt196.

Health warnings on tobacco products: International practices.
Hammond D, Reid JL.
Mexican Journal of Public Health 2012; 54: 270-280.

Positive impact of Australian “blindness” tobacco warning labels: Findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.
Kennedy RD, Spafford MM, Ilan B, Hammond D, Borland R, Fong GT.
Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2012; 95(6): 590-598.

Improper disclosure: Tobacco packaging and emission labelling regulations
Hammond D, White CM.
Public Health 2012; 126(7):613-9. Doi: 10.1016/j.puhe2012.03.012.

Do larger pictorial health warnings diminish the need for plain packaging of cigarettes?
Wakefield M, Germain D, Durkin S, Hammond D, Goldberg M, Borland R.
Addiction 2012; 107(6): 1159-67.

Percieved effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexico youth and adults: A population-level intervention with potential to reduce tocacco-related inequities
Hammond D, Thrasher J, Reid JL, Driezen P, Boudreau C, Arillo-Santillan E, on behalf of the International Tobacco Packaging Study.
Cancer Causes & Control 2012; 23 (1): 57-67. doi: 10.1007/s10552-012-9902-4.

Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content.
Thrasher JF, Arillo-Santillan E, Villalobos V, Perez-Hernandez R, Hammond D, Carter J, Sebrie E, Sansores R, Pineda-Regalado J.
Cancer Causes & Control 2012; 23 (Suppl 1): 69-80. doi: 10.1007/s10552-012-9899-8

Tobacco packaging and labeling under the US Tobacco Control Act: Research needs and priorities.
Hammond D.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2012; 14(1): 62-74.

Estimating the impact of pictorial health warnings and “plain” cigarette packaging: Evidence from experimental auctions among adult smokers in the United States.
Thrasher JF, Rousu M, Hammond D, Navarro A, Corrigan J.
Health Policy 2011; 102: 41-48.

Effectiveness of the European Union text-only cigarette health warnings: Findings from four countries.
Hitchman S, Mons U, Nagelhout GE, Guignard R, McNeill A, Willemsen MC, Driezen P, Wilquin JL, Beck F, Du-Roscöat E, Pötschke-Langer M, Hammond D, Fong GT.
European Journal of Public Health; doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckr099.

Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods: A systematic review.
Campos S, Doxey J, Hammond D
Journal of Public Health Nutrition 2011; 14(8):1496-506.

Health warning messages on tobacco products: A review.
Hammond D.
Tobacco Control 2011; 20:327-337. doi:10.1136/tc2010.037630.

The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors and warning labels on risk perception in the US.
Bansal-Travers M, Hammond D, Smith P, Cummings KM.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011; 40(6): 674-8.

The appeal of smokeless tobacco products among young Canadian smokers: The impact of pictorial health warnings and relative risk messages. 
Callery W, Hammond D, O’Connor RJ, Fong GT.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2011; 13(5):373-83. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntr013.

Perceptions of tobacco health warnings in China compared with picture and text-only health warnings from other countries: An experimental study.
Fong GT, Hammond D, Yuan J, Li Q, Quah ACK, Yan M.
Tobacco Control 2010; 19 Suppl 2:i67-i77.

Consumer understanding of cigarette emission labelling.
Gallopel-Morvan KG, Moodie C, Hammond D, Eker F, Beguinot E, Martinet Y.
European Journal of Public Health 2010; jul 2. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckq087

Adolescents’ response to text-only tobacco health warnings: Results from the 2008 UK Youth Tobacco Policy Survey.
Moodie C, MacKintosh AM, Hammond D.
European Journal of Public Health 2010; 20(4):463-9.

The impact of cigarette package design on perceptions of risk.
Hammond D, Parkinson C.
Journal of Public Health 2009; 31(3):345-53.

Effectiveness evaluation of health warnings on cigarette packs in China, 2008. [In Chinese]
Jiang Y, Fong GT, Li Q, Hammond D, Quah ACK, Yang Y, Driezen P, Yan M.
Chinese Journal of Health Education 2009;25(6):411-3.

The impact of pictures on the effectiveness of tobacco warnings.
Fong GT, Hammond D, Hitchman SC.
Bull World Health Organ 2009; 87:640-643.

Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: Findings from four countries over five years.
Borland R,  Wilson N, Fong GT, Hammond D, et al.
Tobacco Control 2009; 18(5): 358-64.

How reactions to cigarette packet health warnings influence quitting: Findings from the ITC Four Country survey.
Borland R, Yong HH, Wilson N, Fong GT, Hammond D, Cummings KM, Hosting W, McNeill A.
Addiction 2009;104(4):669-75.

Smokers’ responses towards cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.
Fathelrahman AI, Omar M, Awang R, Borland R, Fong GT, Hammond D, Zain Z.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009;11(3):248-53.

Smokers’ reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: A comparison between Mexico and Canada.
Thrasher JF, Hammond D, Fong GT, Arillo-Santillan
E.Salud Publica Mex 2007; 49 suppl 2: S233-40.

Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: Findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.
Hammond D, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings KM, McNeill A, Driezen P.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;32(3):202–209.

Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels in informing smokers about the risks of smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.
Hammond D, Fong GT, Borland R, McNeill A, Cummings KM, Hastings G.
Tobacco Control 2006;15(Suppl III):iii19–iii25.

Graphic Canadian cigarette warning labels and adverse outcomes: Evidence from Canadian smokers.
Hammond D, Fong GT, McDonald PW, Brown KS, Cameron R.
American Journal of Public Health 2004; 94 (8): 1442-45.

Do smokers know how to quit? Knowledge and perceived effectiveness of cessation assistance as predictors of cessation behaviour.
Hammond D, Fong GT, McDonald PW, Borland R.
Addiction 2004; 99(8): 1042-48.

The impact of cigarette warning labels and smoke-free bylaws on smoking cessation.
Hammond D. McDonald, PW, Fong GT, Cameron AR. (2004).
Canadian Journal of Public Health 2004; 95 (3): 201-04.

The impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour.
Hammond D, Fong GT, McDonald PW, Cameron R, Brown KS.
Tobacco Control 2003; 12:391-95.


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